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Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer. Food processing typically involves activities such as mincing and macerating, liquefaction, emulsification, and cooking such as boiling, broiling, frying, or grilling; pickling, pasteurization, and many other kinds of preservation; and canning or other packaging. Primary-processing such as dicing, slicing, freezing or drying when leading to secondary products are also included. Modern food processing also improves the quality of life for people with allergies, diabetics, and other people who cannot consume some common food elements. Food processing can also add extra nutrients such as vitamins.
Innovation in the food processing combines technological innovation with social and cultural aspects. It occurs throughout the entire food system, including production, harvesting, primary and secondary processing, manufacturing and distribution. The ultimate innovation is a new or improved consumer product and service. Innovations can be focused in one area of food technology, for example process engineering, product formulation, food qualities or consumer needs; but ripples spread causing changes in other parts of the food system, in consumer eating patterns and in general social and cultural areas. Food industry innovation strategies need to be based on the total technology in the food system and concerned not only with the technological changes but also with the social and environmental changes, so as to produce food that satisfies the nutritional, personal and social needs and wants of all communities.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Under-nutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases, and the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition.
A modified food that claims to improve health or well-being by providing benefit beyond that of the traditional nutrients it contains. Functional foods may include such items as cereals, breads, beverages that are fortified with vitamins, some herbs, and nutraceuticals. A functional food is a food given an additional function often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients. The term may also apply to traits purposely bred into existing edible plants, such as purple or gold potatoes having enriched anthocyanin or carotenoid contents, respectively. Functional foods may be designed to have physiological benefits and / or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions, and may be similar in appearance to conventional food and consumed as part of a regular diet. The term was first used in Japan in the 1980s where there is a government approval process for functional foods called Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU).
Quality and Food Safety have become competitive edge in the global market for food products. Food Safety and Quality has been helping businesses in the agriculture, processing, food equipments, and restaurants and retail industries to navigate the food safety and regulatory environment for more than 70 years. Our extensive suite of food safety and quality services spans every link from farm to fork including certification, testing, training, consulting, auditing and regulatory compliance. Use of food safety regulations For all round development of the food processing sector, various aspects of total quality management (TQM) such as quality control, quality system and quality assurance should operate in a horizontal fashion. Apart from this, in the interest of consumer safety and public health, there is a need to ensure that the quality food products manufactured and sold in the market meet the stringent parameters prescribed by the food safety regulator.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms such as yeasts, or other microorganisms although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food, as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity. Food preservation may also include processes that inhibit visual deterioration such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut during food preparation. Many processes designed to preserve food involve more than one food preservation method. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam involves boiling to reduce the fruit's moisture content and to kill bacteria, etc., and sugaring to prevent their re-growth and sealing within an airtight jar to prevent recontamination. Some traditional methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input and carbon footprint, when compared to modern methods. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavor is an important aspect of food preservation.
Food waste accounts for about 10 per cent of the total waste generated in Singapore, but only 16 per cent of the food waste is recycled. The rest of it is disposed of at the waste-to-energy plants for incineration. There is a need to manage food waste holistically. Reducing food wastage, redistributing unsold or excess food, and recycling/treating food waste are important components of our national waste management strategies to work towards Singapore becoming a Zero Waste Nation under the Sustainable Singapore Blueprint 2015. The diagram below shows Singapore’s food waste management strategies, with the most preferred approach at the top of the hierarchy. Besides the effort required collecting and disposing of it, food waste contaminates recyclables and compromises recycling efforts. It may also encourage odour nuisance issues and vermin proliferation if not managed properly.
Nutritional biochemistry is one of the academic foundations that make up nutritional sciences, a discipline that encompasses the knowledge of nutrients and other food components with emphasis on their range of function and influence on mammalian physiology, health, and behavior. Nutritional biochemistry is a sub-discipline that is made up of the core knowledge, concepts, and methodology related to the chemical properties of nutrients and other dietary constituents and to their biochemical, metabolic, physiological, and epigenetic functions. A primary focus of research in nutritional biochemistry is the scientific establishment of optimal dietary intakes for every nutrient and food component throughout the life cycle. Nutritional bio-chemistry is rooted in analytical methodology that permits the purification of individual nutrients and the determination of their structures, as well as in classical biochemical approaches that identify metabolic pathways and elucidate the role of dietary components in regulating metabolism and gene expression.
General subjects and achievement of modern vitaminology are discussed. The most impressive success in fundamental vitaminology during last three to four decades was achieved in following areas in elucidation of vitamins metabolic roles and molecular mechanisms in their action; development and improvement of high sensitive modern methods for analytical vitamins determination in biological objects and food; establishment of reliable criteria and methods for human vitamin status assessment; examination of physiological human vitamin requirements and establishment of elaboration of scientifically grounds for reasonable vitamins application in diseases prevention and treatment. In the area of applied vitaminology the most attention during last decades was paid to next subjects regular broad vitamin status examination of representative groups of population; reasoning, development, realization and evaluation of broad scale measures for prevention of vitamin insufficiency and improvement of vitamin status of population; development and industrial production of vitamins, multivitamin-mineral preparations and various vitamin enriched food stuffs for the same purpose.
Nutritional disorders include a wide spectrum of conditions, including generalized under-nutrition, over-nutrition leading to obesity, the eating disorders and diseases where nutrition has a role in the aetiology. Both under-nutrition and obesity are important public health problems. The treatment of under-nutrition is often complicated by factors such as war famine and infectious diseases. Obesity remains difficult to treat once present, although the advances in the understanding of the physiology of feeding discussed in this chapter are leading to new pharmacological and surgical interventions. Nutritional interventions in the treatment of diseases may involve the use of therapeutic diets, the administration of dietary supplements or the provision of nutritional support, either enteral or parenteral. Nutritional support is best delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of most dietary supplements.
Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage, pathogens that may cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored, those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine, and those with other useful roles such as producing probiotics. Food safety is a major focus of food microbiology. Numerous agents of disease, pathogens are readily transmitted via food, including bacteria, and viruses. Microbial toxins are also possible contaminants of food. However, microorganisms and their products can also be used to combat these pathogenic microbes. Probiotic bacteria, including those that produce bacteriocins can kill and inhibit pathogens. Alternatively, purified bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products. Finally, bacteriophages, viruses that only infect bacteria, can be used to kill bacterial pathogens. Thorough preparation of food, including proper cooking, eliminates most bacteria and viruses.
Tools, Techniques and Instrumentation in Food Science & Technology study some of the latest analytical techniques that are being used for research and characterization of food is examined. The study intends to provide an updated overview on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in food analysis. Some future developments of these systems and their foreseeable application in food characterization are also discussed. The reviewed techniques are those based on spectroscopic, biological, separation, and electrochemical procedures. New technologies and challenges in food analysis from multiple perspectives; a review of novel technologies being used in food analysis, an in-depth analysis of several specific approaches, and an examination of the most innovative applications and future trends. The latest developments in analytical and bio-analytical techniques, and the most innovative applications and issues in food analysis are studied.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, cheese, and butter. A facility that produces dairy products is known as a dairy or dairy factory. Butter, cheese, nonfat dry and skim powder utilize about 65 percent of the nation's milk production across the world. U.S. dairy farmers are fortunate that increased demand for these products, both domestically and globally, continues to increase. Due to these products using a significant portion of the milk production, it has become an important to keep a close watch on their commercial use. The commercial use of butter, cheese and powder continue to grow. An examination of the numbers shows for butter and cheese, domestic use continues to advance but at slower rate compared to years past. The butter and cheese exports are consuming a larger share of total use. Exports are a major factor in commercial use of manufactured dairy products.
Agricultural biotechnology deals with agriculture involving the use of scientific tools and techniques which include genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue cultures to modify living organisms such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. Agriculture Biotechnology studies include traditional breeding, mutagenesis, polyploidy, protoplast fusion, RNA interference, transgenics, genome editing, improved nutritional content, agronomic traits, safety testing and government regulations. This session discusses various aspects in agriculture biotechnology.
The Food Processing and Packaging Technologies focuses on investigations of physical and microbial effects that processing and packaging steps have on the potential public health impact of foods in terms of food safety, quality and nutrition. Food Processing and Packaging Technologies research centers deals with pasteurization, extended shelf-life and sterilization. This session discusses various issues on food processing and packaging technologies which include validation of novel technologies for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of dried ingredients and minimal processing of fresh produce.